Comparative Politics

Frequency and Structure of Examinations

The Comparative Politics Qualifying Exam will be offered on two consecutive days in June, according to the department’s schedule for exams. Students will be asked to answer a total of two questions: each answer should be between 15 and 25 pages in length including footnotes but not bibliography, diagrams, or tables.

Students will need mastery of the Comparative Politics Core List and one topic of their choice. Current choices are: Comparative Political Economy, Ideology and Culture, Institutions, Nations and Nationalism, Order and Violence, or Political Regimes and Transitions. The exam will take place over two days. At the start of each day, the student will be given the questions for that day’s segments (via email); students will answer one question from two or more options. Completed answers should be returned to the exam administrator eight hours later. (Answers should be returned as .doc or .pdf file.) Essays should be type-written, double-spaced, in 12point font. While students are free to consult any written source, the text of the exam should be original. Although some copying or cutting and pasting of material that has been previously prepared will be permitted, standard rules of plagiarism apply.

Each answer will be read by the two faculty members in comparative politics. Students may receive “pass,” “not pass,” or (rarely) “high pass” on the exam. In accordance with departmental policy, students who do not pass the exam in their first attempt may retake the exam at a subsequent date. If a student fails to pass the entire exam in two attempts, their retention in the PhD program will be under review.


Students who wish to take the Comparative qualifying exam should consult with relevant faculty advisors about choosing among the topical lists. Students will be responsible for the Core List and one topical list.

Reading Lists (April 2021)

Anderson, Benedict. 1983. Imagined Communities Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso.

Cox, Gary W. 1997. Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World's Electoral Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dahl, Robert. 1972. Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Huntington, Samuel P. 1968. Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven: Yale University Press. Chapters 1, 4, 5, 6.

Kalyvas, Stathis. 2006. The Logic of Violence in Civil War. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lijphart, Arend. 2012. Patterns of Democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Lipson, Seymour Martin, and Stein Rokkan. 1967. “Cleavage Structures, Party Systems, and Voter Alignment” in Party systems and voter alignments: cross-national perspectives. New York: Free Press.

Mill, John S. 2011. A System of Logic: Ratiocinative and Inductive. New York: Harper & Brothers. Chapter 8, Volume I.

Moore, Barrington. 1966. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Boston: Beacon Press. Chapters 1, 2, 4, 5, 7-9.

Olson, Mancur. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Boston: Harvard University Press.

Ostrom, Elinor. 1990. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. London: Cambridge University Press.

Przeworski, Adam, et al. 2000. Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Well-Being in the World 1950-1990. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Putnam, Robert. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Scott, James C. 1985. Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. Bethany, Connecticut: Brevis Press.

Weber, Max. 1930. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Weber, Max. 2013. From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Hoboken: Routledge. Read pp. 77-83 (excerpt from “Politics as a Vocation”).

Weber, Max. 1968. “The Nature of Charismatic Authority and Its Routinization” and “The Pure Types of Legitimate Authority.” Both from The Theory of Social and Economic Organization.” In Max Weber on Charisma and Institution Building, pp. 46-65.

Acemoglu, Daron and James A. Robinson. “A Theory of Political Transitions” American Economic Review 91, no. 4 (2001): 938-963

Fearon, James D., and David D. Laitin. “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War.” American Political Science Review 97, no. 1 (2003): 75-90.

Geertz, Clifford. “Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture.” Readings in the philosophy of social science, (1994): 213-231.

Peter Gourevitch. “The Second Image Reversed: The International Sources of Domestic Politics.” International Organization 32, no. 4 (1978): 881-912.

Lipset, Seymour Martin. "Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy." American Political Science Review 53, no. 1 (1959): 69-105.

North, Douglass C. and Barry R. Weingast. “Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutions Governing Public Choice in Seventeenth-Century England.” The Journal of Economic History Vol. 49, No. 4 (1989): 803-832.

Schmitter, Philippe C. “Still the Century of Corporatism?” Review of Politics 36, no. 1 (1974): 85-131.

1. Thorstein Veblen- Absentee Ownership and Business Enterprise in Recent Times: The Case of America. Transaction Publishers; Revised ed. edition (January 1, 1997)

   a. Thorstein Veblen, Theory of Business Enterprise

2. John Maynard Keynes, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (1936)

3. Joseph A Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (NY: Harper Torchbooks)

4. Karl Polanyi- The Great Transformation (Beacon Press)

5. Friedrich von Hayek, The Road to Serfdom (Chicago, 1944)

6. George Stigler, (ed) Chicago Studies in Political Economy (University of Chicago Press)

   a. Ludwig Von Mises, Liberalism, The Classical Tradition, (Liberty Press)

   b. Ronald Coase, “The Problem of Social Cost,” Journal of Law and Economics 3 (October     1960)

7. Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom

8. Michel Foucault, The Birth of Biopolitics (Picador)

9. Andrew Shonfield, 1965, Modern Capitalism: The Changing Balance Between Public and Private Power (Oxford)

10. Michal Kalecki, “Political Aspects of Full Employment”

11. Hyman Minsky, 1986, Stabilizing and Unstable Economy (MS Sharpe)

12. Michel Aglietta, 1979, A Theory of Capitalist Regulation (Verso)

   a. Michel Aglietta, (1998). “Capitalism at the turn of the century: regulation theory and the      challenge of social change”. New Left Review. Pp 41-90

13. Raghuram G. Rajan and Luigi Zingales, 2004, Saving Capitalism from the Capitalists: Unleashing the Power of Financial Markets to Create Wealth and Spread Opportunity, (Princeton N.J.: Princeton University Press)

14. Peter Hall & David Soskice, eds., 2001, Varieties of Capitalism, (Oxford)

15. Greta Krippner, 2012, Capitalizing on Crisis: The Political Origins of the Rise of Finance (Harvard University Press)

    a. Natascha van der Zwaan, 2014: “Making Sense of Financialization”.  In: Socio-Economic Review 12(1), 99–129.

16. Mark Blyth. (2002). Great Transformations: Economic Ideas and Institutional Change in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

   a. Mark Blyth, 2015, Austerity. History of a Dangerous Idea (Oxford)

17. Gøsta Esping-Andersen, 1990, The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (Princeton)

18. Evelyn Huber and John Stephens, Development and Crisis of the Welfare State: Parties and Policies in Global Markets. University of Chicago Press, 2001

19. T.H. Marshall, 1992, Citizenship and Social Class (London: Pluto Press)

20. Maurizio Ferrera, The Boundaries of Welfare: European Integration and the New Spatial Politics of Social Solidarity (Oxford University Press 2006)

21. Anton Hemerijck, 2014, Changing Welfare States (Oxford University Press, 2013)

22. Monica Prasad, 2012, The Land of Too Much: American Abundance and the Paradox of Poverty (Harvard University Press)

23. Kathleen Thelen, 2014, Varieties of Liberalization: The New Politics of Social Solidarity. (New York: Cambridge University Press)

   a. Peer Hull Kristensen; Kari Lilja; Eli Moen; Glenn Morgan, 2016/ Nordic Countries as          Laboratories for Transnational Learning In: Nordic Cooperation: A European Region in Transition, ed. /Johan Strang. Abingdon: Routledge p. 183-204 (Global Order Studies, Vol. 8)

24. Streeck, W. (2014) Buying Time: The Delayed Crisis of Democratic Capitalism, (New York, Verso)

25. Klaus Dörre, /Lessenich, Stephan/Rosa, Hartmut (2015): Sociology, Capitalism, Critique. London/New York: Verso.

26. Lucio Baccaro, & Chris Howell (2017): Trajectories of Neoliberal Transformation: European Industrial Relations since the 1970s. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

   a. Lucio Baccaro & Jonas Pontusson, 2016, “Rethinking Comparative Political Economy:      The Comparative Growth Model Perspective”, Politics & Society 2016, Vol. 44(2) 175–207

Louis Althusser, On the Reproduction of Capitalism: Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses, translated by G. M. Goshgarian (New York: Verso, 2014).

Lauren Berlant, Cruel Optimism (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2011).

Pierre Bourdieu, Distinction. A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, translated by Routledge Kegan & Paul (Oxon: Routledge, 2010).

Pierre Bourdieu, The Logic of Practice, translated by Richard Nice (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1992).

Judith Butler, “Consciousness Thus Makes Subjects of Us All” in The Psychic Life of Power. Theories in Subjection (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1994), 106-131.

James Clifford, The Predicament of Culture: Twentieth-Century Ethnography, Literature, and Art (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988).

James Clifford and George E. Marcus (eds.), Writing Culture The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography (Los Angeles, Berkeley: The University of California Press, 1986).

Jean Comaroff and John L. Comaroff, Of Revelation and Revolution, Vol. 1: Christianity, Colonialism, and Consciousness in South Africa (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).

Terry Eagleton, Ideology: An Introduction (New York: Verso, 2007).

Michel Foucault, The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978-1979, trans. by Graham Burchell (New York: Picador, 2008).

Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, Vol. 1: An Introduction (New York: Vintage Books, 1990).

Michel Foucault, “Afterword: The Subject of Power,” in Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics, ed. Hubert L. Dreyfus and Paul Rabinow (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983), 208-228.

Michel Foucault, “Governmentality,” in The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, edited by Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, and Peter Miller (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1991), 87-104.

Clifford Geertz, Interpretations of Culture (New York: Basic Books, 1973).

Antonio Gramsci, The Prison Notebooks (New York: International Publishers Co., 1971).

Stuart Hall, “The Toad in the Garden: Thatcherism Amongst the Theorists,” in Nelson and L Grossberg (eds.), Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988), 35-74.

Fredric Jameson, The Political Unconscious. Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982).

Fredric Jameson, Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1992).

David Laitin, Hegemony and Culture: Politics and Change among the Yoruba (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986).

Karl Marx with Friedrich Engels, The German Ideology (New York: Prometheus Books, 1998).

Karl Marx, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (New York: International Publishers Co., 1994).

Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. 1, Selections, in The Marx and Engels Reader, ed. by Robert Tucker (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1978).

Elizabeth Povinelli, The Cunning of Recognition: Indigenous Alterities and the Making of Australian Multiculturalism (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002).

William Sewell, Logics of History: Social Theory and Social Transformation (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005).

E.P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (New York: Vintage, 1966).

Max Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, trans. by Talcott Parsons (New York: Routledge, 2010).

Lisa Wedeen, Ambiguities of Domination: Politics, Rhetoric, and Symbols in Contemporary Syria (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999).

Lisa Wedeen, Peripheral Visions Publics, Power, and Performance in Yemen (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2008).

Lisa Wedeen, “Conceptualizing Culture,” American Political Science Review 96 (2002): 713-728.

Lisa Wedeen, Authoritarian Apprehensions: Ideology, Judgment, and Mourning in Syria (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, forthcoming).

Raymond Williams, Marxism and Literature (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978).

Raymond Williams, Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985).

Slavoj Žižek, The Sublime Object of Ideology (New York: Verso, 2009).


  1. Huber, John D., and Charles R. Shipan. Deliberate discretion?: The institutional foundations of bureaucratic autonomy. Cambridge University Press, 2002. (Ch. 1-4; 6)
  2. Powell, G. Bingham. Elections as instruments of democracy: Majoritarian and proportional visions. Yale University Press, 2000.
  3. Cox, Gary W. Making votes count: strategic coordination in the world's electoral systems. Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  4. North, Douglass C. Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge university press, 1990.
  5. Stokes, Susan C., et al. Brokers, voters, and clientelism: The puzzle of distributive politics. Cambridge University Press, 2013.
  6. Cox, Gary W. The efficient secret: The cabinet and the development of political parties in Victorian England. Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  7. Müller, Wolfgang C., and Kaare Strøm. Policy, office, or votes?: how political parties in Western Europe make hard decisions. Cambridge University Press, 1999. (Pick chapters)
  8. Svolik, Milan W. The politics of authoritarian rule. Cambridge University Press, 2012.
  9. Nalepa, Monika. Skeletons in the closet: Transitional justice in post-communist Europe. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
  10. Samuels, David J., and Matthew S. Shugart. Presidents, parties, and prime ministers: How the separation of powers affects party organization and behavior. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
  11. Carey, John M. Legislative voting and accountability. Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  12. Seymour M. Lipset and Stein Rokkan, 1967 “Cleavage Structures, Party Systems, and Voter Alignments,”


  1. North, Douglass C., and Barry R. Weingast. "Constitutions and commitment: the evolution of institutions governing public choice in seventeenth-century England." The journal of economic history 49.04 (1989): 803-832.
  2. Elinor, Ostrom. "Governing the commons: The evolution of institutions for collective action." (1990).
  3. Tsebelis, George. "Veto players and law production in parliamentary democracies: An empirical analysis." American Political Science Review 93.03 (1999): 591-608
  4. Mansfield, Edward D., Helen V. Milner, and B. Peter Rosendorff. "Free to trade: Democracies, autocracies, and international trade." American Political Science Review 94.2 (2000): 305-321.
  5. Clark, William Roberts, Matt Golder, and Sona Golder. An Exit, Voice, and Loyalty Model of Politics." British Journal of Political Science (2017)
  6. Nichter, Simeon. "Vote buying or turnout buying? Machine politics and the secret ballot." American Political Science Review 102.01 (2008): 19-31.
  7. Posner, Daniel N. "The political salience of cultural difference: Why Chewas and Tumbukas are allies in Zambia and adversaries in Malawi." American Political Science Review 98.4 (2004): 529-545.
  8. Carey, John and Matthew Soberg Shugart. 1995. “Incentives to Cultivate a Personal Vote: a Rank Ordering of Electoral Formulas.” Electoral Studies 14(4):417–439.
  9. Gandhi, Jennifer, and Adam Przeworski. "Authoritarian institutions and the survival of autocrats." Comparative Political Studies 40.11 (2007): 1279-1301.
  10. Jones, Mark P., and Wonjae Hwang. 2005. "Party Government in Presidential Democracies: Extending Cartel Theory Beyond the U.S. Congress," American Journal of Political Science
  11. Crisp, Brian F., Maria C. Escobar-Lemmon, Bradford S. Jones, Mark P. Jones, and Michelle M. Taylor-Robinson. 2004. “Electoral Incentives and Legislative Representation in Six Presidential Democracies.” The Journal of Politics 66(3): 823-46
  12. Cheibub, J. A., A. Przeworski, and S. M. Saiegh. 2004. “Government coalitions and legislative success under presidentialism and parliamentarism.” British Journal of Political Science 34(04): 565-587.
  13. Lijphart, A. 1991. “Constitutional choices for new democracies.” Journal of Democracy 2(1): 72-84.
  14. Heller, William B., and Carol Mershon. “Party Switching in the Italian Chamber of Deputies, 1996-2001.” The Journal of Politics 67, no. 2 (May 1, 2005): 536–559.
  15. Diermeier, Daniel, and Razvan Vlaicu. “Parties, Coalitions, and the Internal Organization of Legislatures.” American Political Science Review 105, no. 2 (2011): 359–380.
  16. Strom, Kaare. “A Behavioral Theory of Competitive Political Parties” American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 34, No. 2. (May, 1990), pp. 565-598.
  17. Harmel, Robert and Ken Janda, (1994) "An Integrated Theory of Party Goals and Party Change," Journal of Theoretical Politics 6: 259-288.
  18. Wolfgang C. Muller, “Inside the Black Box: A Confrontation of Party Executive Behaviour and Theories of Party Organizational Change,” Party Politics 3, no. 3 (July 1, 1997): 293-313.
  19. Kitschelt, Herbert. 1989. “The Internal Politics of Parties: The Law of Curvilinear Disparity Revisited.” Political Studies 37(3): 400-421
  20. Katz, Richard S., and Peter Mair. 1995. “Changing Models of Party Organization and Party Democracy: The Emergence of the Cartel Party.” Party Politics 1(1): 5-28
  21. Carles Boix, "Setting the Rules of the Game: The Choice of Electoral Systems in Advanced Democracies." American Political Science Review 93, 3 (September 1999), 609-24.

Nadia Abu El-Haj, Facts on the Ground: Archaeological Practice and Territorial Self- Fashioning in Israel Society (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001).

Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism (London-New York: Verso, 1991).

Etienne Balibar and Immanuel Wallerstein, Race, Nation, Class (London: Verso, 1991).

Homi K. Bhabha (ed.), Nation and Narration (London and New York: Routledge, 1990), chapter one.

Walter Benjamin, “Theses on the Philosophy of History,” in Illuminations, trans. by Harry Zhon and edited by Hannah Arendt (New York: Shocken Books, 1968), 253-264. Theses 9, 13-18.

Lauren Berlant, The Anatomy of National Fantasy: Hawthorne, Utopia, and Everyday Life (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).

Rogers Brubaker, Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

Partha Chatterjee, The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993).

Geoff Eley and Ronald Grigor Suny, Becoming National: A Reader (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Karl Deutsch, Nationalism and Social Communication (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1966).

Ernest Gellner, Nations and Nationalism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983).

Manu Goswami, Producing India (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003).

Leah Greenfeld, Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992).

Anna Grzymala-Busse, Nations Under God: How Churches Use Moral Authority to Influence Policy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015).

Ghassan Hage, White Nation: Fantasies of White Supremacy in a Multicultural Society (New York: Routledge, 2000).

Richard Handler, Nationalism and the Politics of Culture in Quebec (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1988).

Russell Hardin, One for All: The Logic of Group Conflict (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995).

Eric Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

David Laitin, Identity in Formation: The Russian Speaking Populations in the Near Abroad (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998).

Claudio Lomnitz, Deep Mexico, Silent Mexico: An Anthropology of Nationalism (Minneapolis, London: University of Minnesota 2001).

Anthony W. Marx, Making Race and Nation: A Comparison of South Africa, the United States, and Brazil (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Peter Sahlins, Boundaries: The Making of France and Spain in the Pyrenees (Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1989).

Hugh Seton-Watson, Nations and States (London: Methuen, 1977).

William H. Sewell Jr., "The French Revolution and the Emergence of the Nation Form," in Michael A. Morrison and Melinda Zook (eds.), Revolutionary Currents: Nation Building in the Transatlantic World, (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2004) [ON RESERVE].

Ronald Grigor Suny, The Revenge of the Past: Nationalism, Revolution, and the Collapse of the Soviet Union (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1993).

Yael Tamir, Liberal Nationalism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995).

Katherine Verdery, What Was Socialism, and What Comes Next? (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996).

Lisa Wedeen, Ambiguities of Domination: Politics, Rhetoric and Symbols in Contemporary Syria (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1999).

Lisa Wedeen, Peripheral Visions: Publics, Power, and Performance in Yemen (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2008).


Huntington, Samuel P. Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968.

Kalyvas, Stathis N. 2006. The Logic of Violence in Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Scott, James. Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.

Autesserre, Severine. The Trouble with the Congo: Local Violence and the Failure of International Peacebuilding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Arjona, Ana, Nelson Kasfir, and Zachariah Mampilly (Eds.). 2015. Rebel Governance in Civil War. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Balcells, Laia. Rivalry and Revenge: The Politics of Violence during Civil War. Cambridge: New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Cederman, Lars-Erik, Kristian Skrede Gleditsch, and Halvard Buhaug. Inequality, Grievances, and Civil War. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Christia, Fotini. 2012. Alliance Formation in Civil Wars. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cohen, Dara Kay. 2016. Rape During Civil War. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Finkel, Evgeny. 2017. Ordinary Jews: Choice and Survival during the Holocaust. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Lessing, Benjamin. 2017. Making Peace in Drug Wars. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Petersen, Roger Dale. 2001. Resistance and Rebellion: Lessons from Eastern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Reno, William. Warfare in Independent Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Roessler, Philip. Ethnic Politics and State Power in Africa: The Logic of the Coup-Civil War Trap. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

Scott, James. The Art of Not Being Governed: An Anarchist History of Upland Southeast Asia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.

Staniland, Paul. 2014. Networks of Rebellion: Explaining Insurgent Cohesion and Collapse. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Stanton, Jessica A. Violence and Restraint in Civil War: Civilian Targeting in the Shadow of International Law. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

Straus, Scott. 2015. Making and Unmaking Nations: War, Leadership, and Genocide in Modern Africa. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Tilly, Charles. Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990-1992. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1992.

Weinstein, Jeremy M. 2006. Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Wilkinson, Steven. Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots in India. Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Wood, Elisabeth Jean. Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.


Fearon, James D., and David D. Laitin. “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War.” The American Political Science Review 97, no. 1 (February 2003): 75–90.

Centeno, Miguel Angel. 1997. “Blood and Debt: War and Taxation in Nineteenth Century Latin America.” American Journal of Sociology 102(6): 1565–1605.

Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher. 2011. Divide and Conquer or Divide and Concede: How Do States Respond to Internally Divided Separatists? American Political Science Review 105 (02): 275–297.

Darden, Keith. 2008. “The Integrity of Corrupt States: Graft as an Informal State Institution.” Politics & Society 36(1): 35–59.

Fearon, James D. 1995. “Rationalist Explanations for War.” International Organization 49(3): 379–414.

Fujii, Lee Ann. “The Puzzle of Extra-Lethal Violence.” Perspectives on Politics 11, no. 02 (2013): 410–26.

Kalyvas, Stathis N., and Laia Balcells. 2010. “International System and Technologies of Rebellion: How the End of the Cold War Shaped Internal Conflict.” American Political Science Review 104(3): 415–29.

Keen, David. 1998. “The Economic Functions of Violence in Civil Wars.” The Adelphi Papers 38(320): 1–89.

Kuran, Timur. “Now Out of Never: The Element of Surprise in the East European Revolution of 1989.” World Politics 44, no. 1 (October 1991): 7–48.

Olson, Mancur. 1993. “Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development.” American Political Science Review 87(3): 567–76.

Skarbek, David. 2011. “Governance and Prison Gangs.” American Political Science Review 105(4): 702–16.

Staniland, Paul. 2012. “States, Insurgents, and Wartime Political Orders.” Perspectives on Politics 10(2): 243–64.

Trejo, Guillermo, and Sandra Ley. 2017. “Why Did Drug Cartels Go to War in Mexico? Subnational Party Alternation, the Breakdown of Criminal Protection, and the Onset of Large-Scale Violence.” Comparative Political Studies: 1041401772070.

Varshney, Ashutosh. “Ethnic Conflict and Civil Society: India and Beyond.” World Politics 53, no. 3 (April 2001): 362–98.

Walter, Barbara F. 2009. “Bargaining Failures and Civil War.” Annual Review of Political Science 12: 243–61.

Wickham-Crowley, Timothy P. 1990. “Terror and Guerrilla Warfare in Latin America , 1956-1970.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 32(2): 201–37.

Acemoglu, Daron, and James Robinson. 2006. Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Albertus, Michael. 2015. Autocracy and Redistribution. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Albertus, Michael, and Victor Menaldo. 2018. Authoritarianism and the Elite Origins of Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Ansell, Ben, and David Samuels. 2014. Inequality and Democratization: An Elite-Competition Approach. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Boix, Carles. 2003. Democracy and Redistribution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, Alastair Smith, Randolph Silverson and James Morrow. 2003. The Logic of Political Survival. MIT Press.

Coppedge, Michael, John Gerring, David Altman, Michael Bernhard, Steven Fish, Allen Hicken, Matthew Kroenig, Staffan I. Lindberg, Kelly McMann, Pamela Paxton, Holli A. Semetko, Svend-Erik Skaaning, Jeffrey Staton, and Jan Teorell. 2011. “Conceptualizing and Measuring Democracy: A New Approach.” Perspectives on Politics 9(2): 247-67.

Dahl, Robert. 1971. Polyarchy. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Gandhi, Jennifer. 2008. Political Institutions Under Dictatorship. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Geddes, Barbara. "What do we know about democratization after twenty years?" Annual Review of Political Science 2, no. 1 (1999): 115-144.

Haber, Stephen. 2006. “Authoritarian Government.” In Barry Weingast and Donald Wittman, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Political Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 693-707.

Haggard, Stephan, and Robert Kaufman. 2016. Dictators and democrats: Masses, elites, and regime change. Princeton University Press.

Levitsky, Steven, and Lucan Way. 2010. Competitive authoritarianism: Hybrid regimes after the cold war. Cambridge University Press.

Linz, Juan, and Alfred Stepan. 1996. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Lipset, Seymour Martin. "Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy." American Political Science Review 53, no. 1 (1959): 69-105.

Magaloni, Beatriz. 2006. Voting for Autocracy: Hegemonic Party Survival and Its Demise in Mexico. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Moore Jr., Barrington. 1966. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Boston: Beacon.

Nalepa, Monika. 2010. Skeletons in the Closet: Transitional Justice in Post-Communist Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.

O’Donnell, Guillermo, Philippe C. Schmitter, and Laurence Whitehead. 1986. Transitions from authoritarian rule: Tentative conclusions about uncertain democracies. Johns Hopkins University Press.

Przeworski, Adam, Michael E. Alvarez, Jose Antonio Cheibub, and Fernando Limongi. 2000. Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Well-Being in the World, 1950–1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schedler, Andreas. "What is democratic consolidation?" Journal of Democracy 9.2 (1998): 91-107.

Slater, Dan. 2010. Ordering power: Contentious politics and authoritarian leviathans in Southeast Asia. New York: Cambridge University Press. Chapters 1 and 2, pp. 3-52.

Svolik, Milan. 2012. The Politics of Authoritarian Rule. Cambridge University Press.

Wedeen, Lisa. 1999. Ambiguities of Domination: Politics, Rhetoric, and Symbols in Contemporary Syria. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Weingast, Barry. 1997. “The Political Foundations of Democracy and the Rule of Law.” American Political Science Review 91(2): 245-63.

Wood, Elisabeth. 2000. Forging Democracy from Below: Insurgent Transitions in South Africa and El Salvador. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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